Press Council Act 1992

Objectives of Press Council Act

The objectives of the Council shall be as follows:-
(a) To create appropriate atmosphere for the development of healthy journalism,
(b) To prescribe the code of conduct for journalism with a view to prohibiting the misuse of the freedom of press.
(c) To maintain cordial relations between the Press and His Majesty’s Government.
(d) To cause to maintain public morality and dignity of the citizens, and
(e) To make continuous efforts to prohibit the interference with the decencies of the freedom of press and journalism.

 

Functions, duties and powers of the Council

(a) To make suggestions to His Majesty’s Government by reviewing from time to time the policies relating to journalism and by obtaining suggestions from the concerned quarters.

(b) To enforce a code of conduct for journalism by drawing it up with a view to development healthy journalism.

(c) To make suggestions to Nepal Government for the development of journalism.

(d) To keep an up-to date record concerning the circulation of paper.

(e) To take necessary actions, upon receipt of any complaint by the Council, as to any news item published in any paper.

(f) To submit an annual report to His Majesty’s Government on the studies and evaluation carried out on the activities and prevailing situation of papers, and

(g) To carry out inquiries into the anti-social and objectionable items published in any paper.

 

Audit Bureau of the Council

  • Under the council comes Audit Bureau having following functions and duties and power:

(1) The Bureau shall have the following functions, duties and powers:-

(a) To determine the number of publications on the basis of circulation of papers and keeping an up-to-date record thereof, and
(b) To classify papers on the basis, inter alia, of the number of the publications made.
(2) Apart from the functions, duties, and powers referred to in the sub-section (1) above, other functions, duties and powers of the Bureau shall be as prescribed.

 

Complaints

  • (1) If a journalist acts in contravention of his professional code of conduct, any person may file a complaint before the Council.
    (2) On receipt of any complaint pursuant to the sub – section above, the Council may, upon carrying out necessary inquiries into the matter, do of cause to be done the following:-
    (a) To cause to publish the statement of the aggrieved party in the concerned paper,
    (b) To cause to make an apology to the aggrieved party and to cause to publish his/her statement in the concerned paper,
    (c) To cause to publish any comment, article or publishing material of the aggrieved party in the concerned paper, and (d) with respect to a journalist who is in defiance of the professional code of conduct time and again, to recommend to His Majesty’s Government for the suspension, in whole or in part, of any privilege or facility receivable by him from His Majesty’s Government.
    (3) The Council may express regret at a journalist who is in default of complainance with the Council’s decision referred to in the sub-section (b) above and may cause such matter to be published in public.
    (4) The Council shall, before taking any decision pursuant to the sub-section (b) or (c), proved an opportunity to the concerned journalist for submitting his explanation.

 

Critical Assessment

  • There should have been Nepal government instead of His majesty’s Government.
  • New members don’t have the right to fight for the post.
  • Minority concept has been discarded here.
  • Objectives are dependent of His Majesty .

 

Ethics and media

Different meanings of ethics

  1. Motivation based on ideas of right and wrong.(ethical, moral, morality, motives)
  2. The philosophical study of moral values and rules.(moral philosophy)
  3. Ethics means the principle of conduct governing an individual or a profession.
  4. It is concerned with distinguishing between  good and bad.
  5. Ethics is related to duty- duty to self and duty to others.
  6. Ethics on the other hand is a branch of philosophy concerned with the general nature of morals and specific moral choices that people make in relationship with others.(Dennis and McQuail)

Media ethics    

  • Ethics means the principle of conduct governing an individual or a profession.
  • It is concerned with distinguishing between  good and bad.
  • Ethics is related to duty- duty to self and duty to others.
  • Ethics on the other hand is a branch of philosophy concerned with the general nature of morals and specific moral choices that people make in relationship with others.(Dennis and McQuail)

Nature of ethics in media   

›  Ethics aims at systematic knowledge. So, ethics is a science. As a science ethics has its own particular sphere.

›  Ethics is a normative science. It is concerned with what ought to be done rather than what is the case.

›   Ethics is concerned with judgments of value, while positive science deals with judgments of facts.

›  Ethics is not a practical science. Ethic does not teach us how to live a moral life. So, ethics can not be regarded as a practical science.

›  Ethics is not an art. Ethics does not teach us an art as to how to lead a moral life. Rather it helps us to justify rightness or goodness which can lead to the supreme goal of human life that is to realize the summumbonumof human life.

 

 

Five ethical duties

There are mainly five ethical duties of media practitioners. They are as follows:

›  Duty to self

›  Duty to audience

›  Duty to employer

›  Duty to profession

›  Duty to society

MANUSMRITI

Manu is considered as the forefather of all human races. Manu created set of laws that guided the social and religious behavior of people following the ethical principle of Dharma. Manu was the legendary man in Hindu. He was the first sociologist of human society and the law giver and the arcitech of the Hindu society that divides Hindus into four varnas that is casteism.

Smriti means “what is remembered”. Smriti contains laws ,rules, and code of conduct to be followed by individuals , communities and nations.

Manusmriti also known as Mānava-Dharmaśāstra is the first regulatory system in the history of mankind that consisted of about one million Sanskrit verses (shalokas) drafted in 1500 BC. Manusmṛitiis one metrical work of the Dharmaśāstra textual tradition of ancient Vedic Sanatana Dharma presently called Hinduism. Manusmriti is also well renowned as Laws of Manu or Institution of Manu. It has provided base to the Hindu laws and regulations. It was written and compiled during 1st century. It’s one of the 18 smrities of Dharmasastra. Manusmriti is divided into 12 chapters and content wise it can be divided it into three sections and they are

  • 1) Origin of the World
  • 2) Sources of the Law
  • 3) Dharma of the four Social classes (Brahamanas/ Kshatriyas/ Vaishyas/ Shudras)

Though the classification is heavily criticized and has brought injustice to many people till date, still Manusmriti contains a system that has helped in managing a society.Generally known in English as the Laws of Manu.It was first translated into English in 1794 by Sir William Jones, an English Orientalist and judge of the British Supreme Court of Judicature in Calcutta.

Essence in Manusmriti

Veda is the final and supreme authority for Manusmriti.The karma yoga is the essence of Manusmriti which seeks morality, fair play and justice in every human activity. For Manu, dharma is the touchstone of ethics and morality.

 

 

 

 A code in Manusmriti

As per the Manu’s Code I-31 it says “For the welfare of humanity the supreme creator Brahma, gave birth to the Brahmins from his mouth, the Kshatriyas from his shoulders, theVaishyas from his thighs and Shudras from his feet.”

Ten fold principles of Manusmriti

  • · Dhairya or Dhriti- Contentment
  • · Kshama- Forgiveness
  • · Dama- Self- control
  • · Asteya- Refraining from unrighteous appropriating anything
  • · Saucha- Cleanliness
  • · Indriyanigraha- Control of immoral desires
  • · Dhi- Wisdom
  • · Vidya- Knowledge
  • · Satya- Truthfulness
  • · Akrodha- Refraining from anger

 

Media ethics and Manusmriti

Features of Journalism are:

  • Responsibility
  • Freedom of the Press
  • Independence
  • Truth and Accurate
  • Impartiality
  • Fair play

 

 

The content of media must be true, right, accurate and shouldn’t harm others rather respect humanity. Moralities, fairplay, justice as in Manusmriti are equally important in case of journalism. So, we can draw some laws from Manusmriti to regulate the media in a systematic manner.

A verse from Manusmriti

“Satyam BruyatPriyamBruyat”

Ma Bruyat Satyam Apriyam;

PriyamCaNanrutam,

BruyatEshaDharmahSanatanah;”

  • Translation: Speak truth in such a way that it should be pleasing to others. Never speak truth which is unpleasant to others. Never speak truth which might be pleasant. This is the path of eternal morality, Sanatana Dharma.
  • Meaning: The main point is speaking truth which in one’s dharma. Speaking such truth which benefits others and is pleasant to listen.

 

References

research methodology

  1. Show your acquaintance with different research approaches.

Ans : According to Sekaran  “research is a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem that needs a solution.”  The term ‘research’ is also used to describe the collection of information about a specific subject. Research is a scientific investigation which requires different approaches. In research there are different types of approaches. Some approaches are as follows:

  1. Quantitative research approach

Quantitative research is mainly data based. It is a formal , objective , systematic process in which numeric data are utilized to obtain information about the world. It is deductive and statistical .it requires that variables under consideration be measured. This research approach can be further divided into three sub approaches. They are:

  • Inferential approach

Inferential approach means to form a database to infer characteristics or relationships of population . survey is the example of inferential research.

  • Experimental approach

In this approach some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on othe variable.

  • Simulation approach

It involves the construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information can be obtained.

  1. Qualitative approach

This research is more concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinion and behavior. Qualitative research approach is inductive and interpretive. It includes of reporting of results including detailed description , quotes and commentaries. It increases the researcher’s depth of understanding of the phenomenon under study .along with advantages it has disadvantages as well. In this approach there is possibility of loss of objectivity while collecting the data.

  1. Conventional research approach

This approach could be described as a one way flow of information from the subject to the researcher. The process is relatively static, one in which information is gathered from a community or agency  and then process and analyzed by experts for their use with little or no feedback.

  1. Participatory research approach

This research approach is two directional one including of both researcher and subject. Tthis process is dynamic , demand based and change oriented. A central goal of this process is to involve people as active creator of information and knowledge.

  1. Artifact oriented research approach

Artifact oriented research approach looks at communication message. This is also called message research approach. it focuses on examining and interpreting messages  and related ideas such as people’s orientation about message, issues and events. This research approach can be further divided into archival/documentary approach and survey/interview approach.

  1. People of behavior oriented research approach

It mainly focuses on actions and reactions of people that do not rely on self reports of behavior. There are two types of researches in it. . They are observational approach and experimental research.

  1. What is research design? Also discuss various components of research design with suitable examples.

ans:  research design is the conceptual structure within which the research is conducted. It includes of outline of the research about how it should be conducted in which ways. The initial process from writing hypothesis of the research to till the final analysis of the research is inclusive in research design. It is general outline of how a complete research should take place. Research design is a draft containing clear statement of the research problem , procedures and techniques to be used in gathering information , the population and the sample to be studied and the methods to be used in collecting , processing and analyzing data.

For the accomplishment of a research design there should be certain components. They are as follows:

  • The sampling design
  • The observational design
  • The statistical design
  • The operational design

The sampling design

The sampling design is one of the components of  research design. The selected items of population constitute what is technical is called sample. Sampling can also be used as the component of research design.  Selection of certain population can be used for the research design so that there would be biased view of the population. For instance we can take certain number of population for research and find out certain information.

The observational design

Observational design is one of the components of the research design. We can do research by observation as well. primary data can be achieved from observation . observational techniques can be used for qualitative and quantitative and quantitative research purpose. For instance – if we have to know about addicted youth then we can design our research by observational technique.

The statistical design

Statistical design as one of the components can be used for research design. Different statistical diagrams like pie chart , bar diagram can be used for showing the result of research. Statistical design helps in easier understanding of the research output. For instance- if we present the number of drug addicts in a bar diagram then it would be easier to know the exact number.

The operational design

Operational design is one of the components of the research design.

  1. Discuss different types of data collection techniques

Ans : Data  are the information gathered for some purpose. Data is mainly of two types –primary and secondary. Primary data refers to that which is collected for first time.  Secondary data refers to those that are analyzed and processed.

For the collection of primary data different methods and techniques are used. Some techniques used for data collection are described below:

  1. Observation

Observation is technique used for collection of data. Some information can be gained from observation. It is the most common method used for study. Observation techniques can be part of quantitative as well as qualitative research. However observer should be well trained about how to observe on the facts and figures that is required for the research.  Observation can be participatory and non participatory, structured and non structured, obtrusive and non obtrusive and disguised and non disguised observation.

  1. Interview

Interview is another technique for data collection. It is of prime importance when it comes to data collection. Interview serves as a source of information where the audience gets information in the words of the source .interview is regarded as a credible technique of data collection for the source is easily identified.. interview can be individual or group, formal or informal , direct or indirect and so on. An interviewer should be well prepared for taking interview of any type.

  1. Schedules and questionnaires

Schedules and questionnaires is also a method of data collection in research procedure. schedule is a set of questions pertaining the field of inquiry. Schedules are also of different types;

  • Observation schedule
  • Document schedule
  • Rating schedule
  • Interview schedule

These different types of schedules are used for getting information required for research.

Questionnaire is also another technique used for data collection. Questionnaire is    also a numbers of questions given to the person from whom the information is to be collected. Questionnaire is generally mailed to the respondent and they have to fill it  and return it to the sender. Questionnaire can be used in personal interview, telephone interview and group administration as well.

For the secondary data collection the data achieved from primary one can be analyzed and processed .  That data can be used for secondary data collection.

research methodology

  1. Show your acquaintance with different research approaches.

Ans : According to Sekaran  “research is a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem that needs a solution.”  The term ‘research’ is also used to describe the collection of information about a specific subject. Research is a scientific investigation which requires different approaches. In research there are different types of approaches. Some approaches are as follows:

  1. Quantitative research approach

Quantitative research is mainly data based. It is a formal , objective , systematic process in which numeric data are utilized to obtain information about the world. It is deductive and statistical .it requires that variables under consideration be measured. This research approach can be further divided into three sub approaches. They are:

  • Inferential approach

Inferential approach means to form a database to infer characteristics or relationships of population . survey is the example of inferential research.

  • Experimental approach

In this approach some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on othe variable.

  • Simulation approach

It involves the construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information can be obtained.

  1. Qualitative approach

This research is more concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinion and behavior. Qualitative research approach is inductive and interpretive. It includes of reporting of results including detailed description , quotes and commentaries. It increases the researcher’s depth of understanding of the phenomenon under study .along with advantages it has disadvantages as well. In this approach there is possibility of loss of objectivity while collecting the data.

  1. Conventional research approach

This approach could be described as a one way flow of information from the subject to the researcher. The process is relatively static, one in which information is gathered from a community or agency  and then process and analysed by experts for their use with little or no feedback.

  1. Participatory research approach

This research approach is two directional one including of both researcher and subject. Tthis process is dynamic , demand based and change oriented. A central goal of this process is to involve people as active creator of information and knowledge.

  1. Artifact oriented research approach

Artifact oriented research approach looks at communication message. This is also called message research approach. it focuses on examining and interpreting messages  and related ideas such as people’s orientation about message, issues and events. This research approach can be further divided into archival/documentary approach and survey/interview approach.

  1. People of behavior oriented research approach

It mainly focuses on actions and reactions of people that do not rely on self reports of behavior. There are two types of researches in it. . They are observational approach and experimental research.

  1. What is research design? Also discuss various components of research design with suitable examples.

ans:  research design is the conceptual structure within which the research is conducted. It includes of outline of the research about how it should be conducted in which ways. The initial process from writing hypothesis of the research to till the final analysis of the research is inclusive in research design. It is general outline of how a complete research should take place. Research design is a draft containing clear statement of the research problem , procedures and techniques to be used in gathering information , the population and the sample to be studied and the methods to be used in collecting , processing and analyzing data.

For the accomplishment of a research design there should be certain components. They are as follows:

a)     Source of information to be tapped

This is one of the components of research design. We should know about the source from which to gain the information and data for the research. Source itself is very important and identifying the source is even more important for research. For instance-If we have to collect information about the number of households in certain municipality then we can contact the municipality for getting  more acute  information.

b)     Nature of study , objective of study

Nature of study is another component of research design. We should be able to know that what type of research is being conducted. According to nature or objective of the study , we can do research as qualitative or quantitative one. Certain objective should be targeted to accomplish a research. For instance- our objective of study for knowing the population may be providing people of that municipality with certain facilities. Conducting a research design without any objective may not be fruitful one.

c)     Socio- cultural context of the study

Socio cultural context of the study is another important component of research design. While designing for research, researchers should know about the socio cultural context of certain research area where the research is going to be conducted.

d)     Geographical areas to be covered by the study

It is another component in research design. While designing a research , researcher should know that how much area he or she is covering for research purpose of which place and geographic boundary. A single research cannot contain of uneven data of infinite area. For instance- if population of Bhaktapur is to be known then the geographical area should limit in Bhaktapur municipality only.

e)     Period of time to be encompassed

This is another component of research design. A research should be conducted for a certin time period. So while designing a research then time period should be allocated so that required information could be gathered in that time period. For instance- researchers can allocate a month long time period to know about the population of Bhaktapur municipality.

Time is the most important factor while doing research. So assumption and allocation of time for conduction of certain research should be properly done.

f)       Dimensions of the study

Dimension of the study is another component in research design. While  designing a research we should know about the coverage of the research and the study. If we are studying about certain facts then we should limit our dimension as well. if we are trying to get the total population of Bhaktapur municipality then there is no use of knowing about the numbers of colonies in which the population reside.

g)     The bases for selecting data

Selecting data is another important component of research design. Sources should be well identified to get accurate and proximate information.  If researchers have to know about the population of Bhaktapur municipality then the municipality itself can be a good base for selection of data.

h)     Techniques to be used in gathering data

Another important component in research design is techniques used for gathering data. Researcher should know about the techniques that should be used while gathering information. Sampling ,interviews and observation could be used for gathering information on the nature of research being conducted.

  1. Discuss different types of data collection techniques

Ans : Data  are the information gathered for some purpose. Data is mainly of two types –primary and secondary. Primary data refers to that which is collected for first time.  Secondary data refers to those that are analyzed and processed.

For the collection of primary and secondary data different methods and techniques are used. Some techniques used for data collection are described below:

  1.                                  i.            Observation

Observation is technique used for collection of data. Some information can be gained from observation. It is the most common method used for study. Observation techniques can be part of quantitative as well as qualitative research. However observer should be well trained about how to observe on the facts and figures that is required for the research.  Observation can be participatory and non participatory, structured and non structured, obtrusive and non obtrusive and disguised and non disguised observation.

  1.                                ii.            Interview

Interview is another technique for data collection. It is of prime importance when it comes to data collection. Interview serves as a source of information where the audience gets information in the words of the source .interview is regarded as a credible technique of data collection for the source is easily identified.. interview can be individual or group, formal or informal , direct or indirect and so on. An interviewer should be well prepared for taking interview of any type.

  1.                               iii.            Schedules and questionnaires

Schedules and questionnaires is also a method of data collection in research procedure. schedule is a set of questions pertaining the field of inquiry. Schedules are also of different types;

  • Observation schedule
  • Document schedule
  • Rating schedule
  • Interview schedule

These different types of schedules are used for getting information required for research.

Questionnaire is also another technique used for data collection. Questionnaire is    also a numbers of questions given to the person from whom the information is to be collected. Questionnaire is generally mailed to the respondent and they have to fill it  and return it to the sender. Questionnaire can be used in personal interview, telephone interview and group administration as well.

  1. Show your acquaintance with different research approaches.

Ans : According to Sekaran  “research is a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem that needs a solution.”  The term ‘research’ is also used to describe the collection of information about a specific subject. Research is a scientific investigation which requires different approaches. In research there are different types of approaches. Some approaches are as follows:

  1. Quantitative research approach

Quantitative research is mainly data based. It is a formal , objective , systematic process in which numeric data are utilized to obtain information about the world. It is deductive and statistical .it requires that variables under consideration be measured. This research approach can be further divided into three sub approaches. They are:

  • Inferential approach

Inferential approach means to form a database to infer characteristics or relationships of population . survey is the example of inferential research.

  • Experimental approach

In this approach some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on othe variable.

  • Simulation approach

It involves the construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information can be obtained.

  1. Qualitative approach

This research is more concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinion and behavior. Qualitative research approach is inductive and interpretive. It includes of reporting of results including detailed description , quotes and commentaries. It increases the researcher’s depth of understanding of the phenomenon under study .along with advantages it has disadvantages as well. In this approach there is possibility of loss of objectivity while collecting the data.

  1. Conventional research approach

This approach could be described as a one way flow of information from the subject to the researcher. The process is relatively static, one in which information is gathered from a community or agency  and then process and analysed by experts for their use with little or no feedback.

  1. Participatory research approach

This research approach is two directional one including of both researcher and subject. Tthis process is dynamic , demand based and change oriented. A central goal of this process is to involve people as active creator of information and knowledge.

  1. Artifact oriented research approach

Artifact oriented research approach looks at communication message. This is also called message research approach. it focuses on examining and interpreting messages  and related ideas such as people’s orientation about message, issues and events. This research approach can be further divided into archival/documentary approach and survey/interview approach.

  1. People of behavior oriented research approach

It mainly focuses on actions and reactions of people that do not rely on self reports of behavior. There are two types of researches in it. . They are observational approach and experimental research.

  1. What is research design? Also discuss various components of research design with suitable examples.

ans:  research design is the conceptual structure within which the research is conducted. It includes of outline of the research about how it should be conducted in which ways. The initial process from writing hypothesis of the research to till the final analysis of the research is inclusive in research design. It is general outline of how a complete research should take place. Research design is a draft containing clear statement of the research problem , procedures and techniques to be used in gathering information , the population and the sample to be studied and the methods to be used in collecting , processing and analyzing data.

For the accomplishment of a research design there should be certain components. They are as follows:

a)     Source of information to be tapped

This is one of the components of research design. We should know about the source from which to gain the information and data for the research. Source itself is very important and identifying the source is even more important for research. For instance-If we have to collect information about the number of households in certain municipality then we can contact the municipality for getting  more acute  information.

b)     Nature of study , objective of study

Nature of study is another component of research design. We should be able to know that what type of research is being conducted. According to nature or objective of the study , we can do research as qualitative or quantitative one. Certain objective should be targeted to accomplish a research. For instance- our objective of study for knowing the population may be providing people of that municipality with certain facilities. Conducting a research design without any objective may not be fruitful one.

c)     Socio- cultural context of the study

Socio cultural context of the study is another important component of research design. While designing for research, researchers should know about the socio cultural context of certain research area where the research is going to be conducted.

d)     Geographical areas to be covered by the study

It is another component in research design. While designing a research , researcher should know that how much area he or she is covering for research purpose of which place and geographic boundary. A single research cannot contain of uneven data of infinite area. For instance- if population of Bhaktapur is to be known then the geographical area should limit in Bhaktapur municipality only.

e)     Period of time to be encompassed

This is another component of research design. A research should be conducted for a certin time period. So while designing a research then time period should be allocated so that required information could be gathered in that time period. For instance- researchers can allocate a month long time period to know about the population of Bhaktapur municipality.

Time is the most important factor while doing research. So assumption and allocation of time for conduction of certain research should be properly done.

f)       Dimensions of the study

Dimension of the study is another component in research design. While  designing a research we should know about the coverage of the research and the study. If we are studying about certain facts then we should limit our dimension as well. if we are trying to get the total population of Bhaktapur municipality then there is no use of knowing about the numbers of colonies in which the population reside.

g)     The bases for selecting data

Selecting data is another important component of research design. Sources should be well identified to get accurate and proximate information.  If researchers have to know about the population of Bhaktapur municipality then the municipality itself can be a good base for selection of data.

h)     Techniques to be used in gathering data

Another important component in research design is techniques used for gathering data. Researcher should know about the techniques that should be used while gathering information. Sampling ,interviews and observation could be used for gathering information on the nature of research being conducted.

  1. Discuss different types of data collection techniques

Ans : Data  are the information gathered for some purpose. Data is mainly of two types –primary and secondary. Primary data refers to that which is collected for first time.  Secondary data refers to those that are analyzed and processed.

For the collection of primary and secondary data different methods and techniques are used. Some techniques used for data collection are described below:

  1.                                  i.            Observation

Observation is technique used for collection of data. Some information can be gained from observation. It is the most common method used for study. Observation techniques can be part of quantitative as well as qualitative research. However observer should be well trained about how to observe on the facts and figures that is required for the research.  Observation can be participatory and non participatory, structured and non structured, obtrusive and non obtrusive and disguised and non disguised observation.

  1.                                ii.            Interview

Interview is another technique for data collection. It is of prime importance when it comes to data collection. Interview serves as a source of information where the audience gets information in the words of the source .interview is regarded as a credible technique of data collection for the source is easily identified.. interview can be individual or group, formal or informal , direct or indirect and so on. An interviewer should be well prepared for taking interview of any type.

  1.                               iii.            Schedules and questionnaires

Schedules and questionnaires is also a method of data collection in research procedure. schedule is a set of questions pertaining the field of inquiry. Schedules are also of different types;

  • Observation schedule
  • Document schedule
  • Rating schedule
  • Interview schedule

These different types of schedules are used for getting information required for research.

Questionnaire is also another technique used for data collection. Questionnaire is    also a numbers of questions given to the person from whom the information is to be collected. Questionnaire is generally mailed to the respondent and they have to fill it  and return it to the sender. Questionnaire can be used in personal interview, telephone interview and group administration as well.

  1. Show your acquaintance with different research approaches.

Ans : According to Sekaran  “research is a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem that needs a solution.”  The term ‘research’ is also used to describe the collection of information about a specific subject. Research is a scientific investigation which requires different approaches. In research there are different types of approaches. Some approaches are as follows:

  1. Quantitative research approach

Quantitative research is mainly data based. It is a formal , objective , systematic process in which numeric data are utilized to obtain information about the world. It is deductive and statistical .it requires that variables under consideration be measured. This research approach can be further divided into three sub approaches. They are:

  • Inferential approach

Inferential approach means to form a database to infer characteristics or relationships of population . survey is the example of inferential research.

  • Experimental approach

In this approach some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on othe variable.

  • Simulation approach

It involves the construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information can be obtained.

  1. Qualitative approach

This research is more concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinion and behavior. Qualitative research approach is inductive and interpretive. It includes of reporting of results including detailed description , quotes and commentaries. It increases the researcher’s depth of understanding of the phenomenon under study .along with advantages it has disadvantages as well. In this approach there is possibility of loss of objectivity while collecting the data.

  1. Conventional research approach

This approach could be described as a one way flow of information from the subject to the researcher. The process is relatively static, one in which information is gathered from a community or agency  and then process and analysed by experts for their use with little or no feedback.

  1. Participatory research approach

This research approach is two directional one including of both researcher and subject. Tthis process is dynamic , demand based and change oriented. A central goal of this process is to involve people as active creator of information and knowledge.

  1. Artifact oriented research approach

Artifact oriented research approach looks at communication message. This is also called message research approach. it focuses on examining and interpreting messages  and related ideas such as people’s orientation about message, issues and events. This research approach can be further divided into archival/documentary approach and survey/interview approach.

  1. People of behavior oriented research approach

It mainly focuses on actions and reactions of people that do not rely on self reports of behavior. There are two types of researches in it. . They are observational approach and experimental research.

  1. What is research design? Also discuss various components of research design with suitable examples.

ans:  research design is the conceptual structure within which the research is conducted. It includes of outline of the research about how it should be conducted in which ways. The initial process from writing hypothesis of the research to till the final analysis of the research is inclusive in research design. It is general outline of how a complete research should take place. Research design is a draft containing clear statement of the research problem , procedures and techniques to be used in gathering information , the population and the sample to be studied and the methods to be used in collecting , processing and analyzing data.

For the accomplishment of a research design there should be certain components. They are as follows:

a)     Source of information to be tapped

This is one of the components of research design. We should know about the source from which to gain the information and data for the research. Source itself is very important and identifying the source is even more important for research. For instance-If we have to collect information about the number of households in certain municipality then we can contact the municipality for getting  more acute  information.

b)     Nature of study , objective of study

Nature of study is another component of research design. We should be able to know that what type of research is being conducted. According to nature or objective of the study , we can do research as qualitative or quantitative one. Certain objective should be targeted to accomplish a research. For instance- our objective of study for knowing the population may be providing people of that municipality with certain facilities. Conducting a research design without any objective may not be fruitful one.

c)     Socio- cultural context of the study

Socio cultural context of the study is another important component of research design. While designing for research, researchers should know about the socio cultural context of certain research area where the research is going to be conducted.

d)     Geographical areas to be covered by the study

It is another component in research design. While designing a research , researcher should know that how much area he or she is covering for research purpose of which place and geographic boundary. A single research cannot contain of uneven data of infinite area. For instance- if population of Bhaktapur is to be known then the geographical area should limit in Bhaktapur municipality only.

e)     Period of time to be encompassed

This is another component of research design. A research should be conducted for a certin time period. So while designing a research then time period should be allocated so that required information could be gathered in that time period. For instance- researchers can allocate a month long time period to know about the population of Bhaktapur municipality.

Time is the most important factor while doing research. So assumption and allocation of time for conduction of certain research should be properly done.

f)       Dimensions of the study

Dimension of the study is another component in research design. While  designing a research we should know about the coverage of the research and the study. If we are studying about certain facts then we should limit our dimension as well. if we are trying to get the total population of Bhaktapur municipality then there is no use of knowing about the numbers of colonies in which the population reside.

g)     The bases for selecting data

Selecting data is another important component of research design. Sources should be well identified to get accurate and proximate information.  If researchers have to know about the population of Bhaktapur municipality then the municipality itself can be a good base for selection of data.

h)     Techniques to be used in gathering data

Another important component in research design is techniques used for gathering data. Researcher should know about the techniques that should be used while gathering information. Sampling ,interviews and observation could be used for gathering information on the nature of research being conducted.

  1. Discuss different types of data collection techniques

Ans : Data  are the information gathered for some purpose. Data is mainly of two types –primary and secondary. Primary data refers to that which is collected for first time.  Secondary data refers to those that are analyzed and processed.

For the collection of primary and secondary data different methods and techniques are used. Some techniques used for data collection are described below:

  1.                                  i.            Observation

Observation is technique used for collection of data. Some information can be gained from observation. It is the most common method used for study. Observation techniques can be part of quantitative as well as qualitative research. However observer should be well trained about how to observe on the facts and figures that is required for the research.  Observation can be participatory and non participatory, structured and non structured, obtrusive and non obtrusive and disguised and non disguised observation.

  1.                                ii.            Interview

Interview is another technique for data collection. It is of prime importance when it comes to data collection. Interview serves as a source of information where the audience gets information in the words of the source .interview is regarded as a credible technique of data collection for the source is easily identified.. interview can be individual or group, formal or informal , direct or indirect and so on. An interviewer should be well prepared for taking interview of any type.

  1.                               iii.            Schedules and questionnaires

Schedules and questionnaires is also a method of data collection in research procedure. schedule is a set of questions pertaining the field of inquiry. Schedules are also of different types;

  • Observation schedule
  • Document schedule
  • Rating schedule
  • Interview schedule

These different types of schedules are used for getting information required for research.

Questionnaire is also another technique used for data collection. Questionnaire is    also a numbers of questions given to the person from whom the information is to be collected. Questionnaire is generally mailed to the respondent and they have to fill it  and return it to the sender. Questionnaire can be used in personal interview, telephone interview and group administration as well.

Research methodology

1)      Discuss various methods of knowing. Also discuss why science is more trustworthy method of knowing?

Knowing is a wholesome process of attaining some information and knowledge. Knowing is always evolving and transitory. Knowing are of different types. They are mainly of four types. They are:

  • Tenacity

Tenacity is a method of knowing which does not have any authorization from any one.

It is such a method where something is done from time immemorial and is basically true. In this method there is no any question of validity and reliability. There is no such content in case of this method of knowing.  ‘ how’ the knowledge is transferred is more important in this method than why it is important. This method is erroneous.

 

  • Authority

This is another type of method in which something is authorized for some facts. The answer of ‘why’ can be found in this method and also the answer can be searched as it is said by some important person , institution and any other reliable sources. In this method we do not question beyond the authority, we just believe on what the authorized portion has authorized about. However this method can also be erroneous for no research is done on what type of authorization is done in this method.

 

  • Intuition

The third type of method of knowing is intuition in which we depend on our reason, intellect and entirely depend on our intuition. In this method we can question the authority. Sometimes we can use our own mind to know about things and facts. This method is also erroneous for we may also sometime come up with fallacy. We can question other’s authority but cannot question our own authority in this method of knowing.

 

  • Method of science

This is the fourth method of knowing which is the most reliable type of knowing.

The method science comprises of objectivity, logic, empiricism, systematic and verifiability. In this method we depend on facts more than on opinion. This method is completely different than early mentioned methods. This method is more specified and more  clear one than the previous ones. We have to go step by step in this method which is more research based. This method is less erroneous than other methods of knowing.

 

2)      Define the following terms.

  • Variable

Variable in any experiment is that factor which affects the outcome of the experiment. Variable may be dependent and independent variable.

 

  • Hypothesis

Hypothesis is idea or statement and limit proofs derived from any experiment. It can also be used for further more research.

 

  • Induction and deduction

 

 

  • Measurement and its level

Measurement can be termed as an amount, size or extent as established by measuring. There are mainly four levels of measurement:

a)      Nominal level

Nominal level is a type of measurement which is also the weakest form of measurement. This measurement has a property of equivalence which is used in case of all type of measurement in case of certain category.

 

b)      Ordinal level

Ordinal level is another level of measurement in which measuring objects arew usually ranked in certain dimension like from highest to lowest. This level also possess the property of equivalence.

 

c)       Interval level

Interval level is the third level of measurement. It has all the properties of an ordinal level and also an interval between its adjacent points.

 

d)      Ratio level

Ratio level is another level of measurement in which properties of interval level is found and the count starts from zero.

 

 

  • Reliability

Reliability is a factor in research upon which certain things can be assured in certain way. It is a factor on which research can be carried out with much assurance. It is found in method of science.

 

  • Validity

Validity is certain time period or duration of any fact up to which certain research have value. It is also inclusive in method of science.

 

 

 

discuss the importance of journalism with special references to its responsibiliities.

Ans: journalism is a discipline of knowledge .the word journalism is derived from French word “De Jour which means ‘ of the day; .Journalism can be defined in different ways from different perspectives. It is a process.

Running on the ABC principle that is Accuracy, Balance and Credibility, the profession journalism is maintained and balanced by journalist. Journalism as such, is a process of collecting, verifying, reporting and interpreting information of any event and people, has its own importance’s along with its responsibilities. Winston Churchill has said that journalism is a guardian that never sleeps and protects freedom of the people. From his statement it is proved how important journalism actually is. Some importances of journalism are described below:

  1. It provides information to the public

As people have the Right to Information, Press and Publication Right, Right to Opinion, journalism provides information of any issue and events to the public. It is also important responsibility of journalism to provide ABC information to the public. Journalism is the process and in between that journalist, as their responsibility and duty, collects information and disseminates it to the public through mass media. Thus to provide information is an importance of journalism.

  1. It acts as fourt state

Besides other three important organs of the government, “Journalism” is regarded as the fourth state. For journalists play a vital role in creating awareness among public about current happenings, its entitlement as ‘ fourth state ‘ is itself of great importance.

  1. It acts as the ‘ voice of the voiceless’

Since the main task of the journalists is to provide information, they also act as the voice of the                                 voiceless. They bring the matter in highlight that are to be prioritized and do justice with them by letting the world know about the happenings.

 

  1. It plays the role of watch dog

Another importance of journalism is it plays a role of watch dog. As a watch dog it keeps eyes on the happenings of the society and picks out the most important issue.

  1. It is the mediator between related authorities and public

Another importance of journalism is that it plays a role of mediator between concerned authorities and public. The journalists help in exchanging idea of one another party. It acts as the bridge of concern authorities and public.

 

  1. It is an open platform

Journalism is a place where everyone has the equal right to share their views and opinions of their own and publish newspapers.

Besides these above mention importance, it is also the pillar of democracy. It has operated in the state as the fourth organ and makes those operated happenings as a stack of history.

Since practice of vivid journalism is existing currently, each typology is contributing from its sides. Journalism is taken as a profession and business. Be it a process, profession or a discipline of knowledge, its aim is to provide unbiased information and make people aware of the ongoing happenings.